Space Science Reviews,
Vol. 111, Iss. 1, pp. 1-32, doi: 10.1023/B:SPAC.0000032719.40094.1d, March 2004.
Figure 7: Core/mantle heat flow as a function of time for models of Mars evolution. Solid line: models with an early epoch of plate tectonics followed after 500 Myr by the formation of an immobile stagnant lid or lithosphere above the (convecting) mantle. Dashed line: models with an immobile stagnant lid throughout Mars history. Two curves are drawn for each model, differing in the assumed initial temperature difference between the core and the mantle, evaluated at the core-mantle boundary.